[178][179] There are several ancient Tamil, Greek, Chinese and Roman literary references to high carbon Indian steel since the time of Alexander's India campaign. [132] It is a Dravidian language, with little relation to the Indo-European languages of northern India. Sri Lankan Ethnic Crisis: Towards a Resolution (2002), p. 76. An alternative was to smelt the ore first to give wrought iron, then heated and hammered to be rid of slag. [124] There is a very small Tamil community in Pakistan, notably settled since the partition in 1947. Tamil theatre has a long and varied history whose origins can be traced back almost two millennia to dance-theatre forms like Kotukotti and Pandarangam, which are mentioned in an ancient anthology of poems entitled the Kalingathu Parani. King Krishna III, the last great Rashtrakuta king consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to the Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon. [187][188][189][190] The Arabs introduced the South Indian/Sri Lankan wootz steel to Damascus, where an industry developed for making weapons of this steel. The Bhakti movement in Hinduism was founded at this time, and rose along with the growing influence of Jainism and Buddhism. [38] The kings and chieftains were patrons of the arts, and a significant volume of literature exists from this period. Each warrior was trained in martial arts, horse riding and specialized in two of the weapons of that period: Vel (spear), Val (sword), and Vil (bow). In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamma. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects.These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of Mumbai, which typically includes Mumbai… Ventar were the chieftains of the three major lineages, viz Cera, Cola and Pandya. Classical Tamil music is dominated by the Carnatic genre, while gaana and dappan koothu are also popular genres. Throughout the 15th and 16th century the Vijayanagara Empire was the dominant power of South India and sponsored many Tamil literary works. [106][107][108][109][110][111] Irrespective of the ethnic differences, the British imposed a unitary state structure in British Ceylon for better administration. [122], Significant Tamil emigration began in the 18th century, when the British colonial government sent many poor Tamils as indentured labourers to far-off parts of the Empire, especially Malaya, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. The Tamil country is strategically located in the Indian Ocean and had access to a sea trade route. [30], Possible evidence indicating the earliest presence of Tamil people in modern-day Tamil Nadu are the megalithic urn burials, dating from around 1500 BCE and onwards, which have been discovered at various locations in Tamil Nadu, notably in Adichanallur in Thoothukudi District[31][32][33] which conform to the descriptions of funerals in classical Tamil literature. Meanwhile, his lieutenant Vira Pandya defeated the king of Lanka and obtained the submission of the island nation. The governance of the land was through hereditary monarchies, although the sphere of the state's activities and the extent of the ruler's powers were limited through the adherence to the established order ("dharma"). Karpudayar mosque in Kayalpatnam, Old Jumma mosque in Kilakarai and Kazimar Big Mosque in Madurai are among the oldest mosques of Tamil Muslims in Tamil Nadu. Rasam replaces soup in Tamil cuisine. The Tamil cuisine in Sri Lanka differs little from that of South India. Silapathiharam, Tamil literature from the 2nd century CE, refers to the sale of Silamabam instructions, weapons and equipment to foreign traders. [78] According to another theory, cultural diffusion well before Sinhalese arrival in Sri Lanka led to Tamil replacing a previous language of an indigenous Mesolithic population that became the Sri Lankan Tamils. MUMBAI: Maharashtra is among the five most expensive states if one is to study MBBS at a government medical college. The Aryachakaravarthi dynasty continued to rule over large parts of northeast Sri Lanka until the Portuguese conquest of the Jaffna Kingdom in 1619. World's Largest Slums: Dharavi (Mumbai) Mumbai is also home to Dharavi, a locality considered to be Asia's largest slums. [145][143][146][147] Mercantile groups from Tamilakam and Kerala introduced Cholapauttam, a syncretic form of Buddhism and Shaivism in northern Sri Lanka and Southern India. [28] Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". [141] This represents an early religious and cultural fusion[142][note 3] or synthesis[144] between ancient Dravidians and Indo-Aryans, which became more evident over time with sacred iconography, flora and fauna that went on to influence Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. A number of theatrical companies exist, with repertoires including absurdist, realist, and humorous plays.[207]. In P. Hockings (ed.). [39] The literature shows that many of the cultural practices that are considered peculiarly Tamil date back to the classical period. The religion lost its importance in the 14th century when conditions changed for the benefit of Sinhala/Pali traditions.[148]. In the ensuing wars for supremacy, he emerged as the single most victorious ruler and the Pandya kingdom reached its zenith in the 13th century during his reign. Chennai has an estimated population of 4.9 million people, which ranks 6th in India. In Tamil Nadu, Christians and Muslims account for 6% and 5.8% respectively. The burning of Jaffna library in 1981 and Black July in 1983 finally led to over 25 years of war between the Sri Lankan army and the Tamil Tigers, in which both sides committed numerous atrocities. Compared to D Company and Rajan, they were smaller. Nilakanta Sastri's "History of South India"), K.A.N. Tamil population by nation. The Alvars and Nayanars, who were predominantly Tamils, played a key role in the renaissance of Bhakti tradition in India. ", Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, "Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 1991: Social & Cultural Tables - C-7 : Mother Tongue - C-7 Part A (i): Distribution of the 18 Scheduled Languages", "Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 1991: Primary Census Abstract - Primary Census Abstract Total : Primary Census Abstract Total", "Census Data Online - 2001: Data on Language - Part A: Distribution of the 22 Scheduled Languages – India, States & Union Territories – 2001 Census", "Census Data Online - 2001: Data on Language - Statement 2: Distribution of population by Scheduled and Other Languages - India, States and Union Territories - 2001", "2011 Census Data: Data on Language and Mother Tongue - Part A : Distribution of the 22 scheduled languages - India/States/Union Territories - 2011 census", "2011 Census Data: Data on Language and Mother Tongue - Statement 2 : Distribution of population by Scheduled and other Languages India, States and Union Territories - 2011", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=States_of_India_by_Tamil_speakers&oldid=995807636, Lists of states of India by number of speakers of the languages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Five Lesser Epics of Tamil Literature, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 00:20. 2004 ), Thannai, Verttal, Marakkanchi, Vatakkiruttal and Punkilithu Mudiyum Maram and are! % respectively [ 122 ] by the Carnatic genre, while gaana and dappan koothu are also adhered by minorities... 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