He was imprisoned first at Camp O'Donnell, north of Manila. This was not enough to keep the Japanese at bay and the British surrendered on 15 February 1942. Sport Fifteen US soldiers and sailors were killed as well as thirteen merchant seamen rescued from the sunk freighter American Leader. F- Thailand 7000 in F Force, left Changi for Thailand between 16-18 April 1943. Many camps were re-designated during their lifetime hence some camp names may be worded differently or even have several versions. Left Singapore carrying 525 POWs 23/12/44 and arrived Moji Japan 13/01/45. The Hiroshima Main Camp absorbed Zentsuji POW Camp making a total of seven main camps. H-Thailand 3270 pows left 5/5/43 and disembarked Bam Pong, 1979 men were British in this party, many of which had arrived in Singapore in February from Java. As in Noguchi’s welcoming speech and subsequent addresses, it would also appear that there was a concerted effort to convince prisoners of the legitimacy of Japanese war aims and to canvass prisoner opinion about the Japanese people and the outcome of the war. Such beatings could result from simply offending the guard in some way. After a battle lasting nearly 3 months in the Bataan region of the Philippines the US garrison surrendered. In 1942, Corporal Rodney Breavington and Private Victor Gale from the Australian Imperial Force, Private Harold Waters from the East Surrey Regiment and Private Eric Fletcher from the Royal Army Service Corps were recaptured after a failed escape attempt. During the 1920s and 1930s, the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) adopted an ethos which required soldiers to fight to the death rather than surrender. There are also specific nominal lists for RAF POWs held in the Changi camps under AIR 40/1899 and Air 40/1906. During World War II, Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany (towards Soviet POWs and Western Allied commandos) were notorious for atrocities against prisoners of war. By taking too aggressive a stand they would have run a great personal risk and would probably at the same time have jeopardized what scant opportunities for relief work they had. Sailed from Singapore to Moji, Japan departing on 6/9/44 and arriving in Japan with 900 POWs on board. When searching for a camp name you already know please bear in mind the names of the camps and their locations are very often mixed up within official and non-official records, therefore try to get as many names for the same place as you can or tie it down to the main camp and the type of work to find the subcamp. Used for many POW voyages in 1943/4, on 10th June 1945 USS Flying Fish (Commander R.D. Besides, that sent on exchange ships, mail for prisoners of war in the Far East was by July 1942 being transported across Russia to her Pacific seaboard and thence to Japan, under an agreement reached with the Soviet Government. September 1945. On September 7, 1944, the hell ship SS Shinyo Maru was attacked by the submarine USS Paddle. The remaining prisoners were then transported by train to La Union. We add around 200,000 new records each month. Along with the rest of the 24th Group, he ended up at Bataan, where he flew the last combat mission on April 8, 1942. The Japanese transferred most of the prisoners to other areas, leaving just over 500 seriously ill American and other Allied POWs and civilians in the prison. Although Japanese registers the majority of the information is given in English. However, in reality, they couldn't communicate with family more than once or twice during the duration of imprisonment, and there were camps where the POWs were not allowed to communicate with the world outside the camp at all. Many died due to asphyxia, starvation or dysentery. 14 September 1945. A headquarters camp located near to the River's edge, this housed a large hospital building and 3 cemeteries. Roofs of the POW camps were marked with the letters ‘PW’ and relief supplies were dropped by parachute using US Navy fighter-bombers and US Air Force B-29 heavy bombers. On the 12th of September 1944 the convoy the Rakoyu was in was attacked by US submarines and the ship was hit by a torpedo from the US submarine Sealion. You are browsing in: Archive List > British Army. It then carried 20 prisoners from Wake Island to Yokohama, Japan beginning November 1st, 1942 and later carried 71 prisoners from Singapore to Moki, Japan beginning September 21st, 1943. Sailed from Wewak, New Guinea on 17th March 1943 to Kavieng, New Ireland/Rabaul. Most of the causes of death were a disease, malnutrition, overwork, and poor sanitary conditions. 560 POW's died. 37,583 prisoners from the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and Dominions, 28,500 from Netherlands and 14,473 from the United States were released after the surrender of Japan. 6318 British and 2815 Australian POWs are counted within these deaths. Repairs were carried out by POW labour and by April the wooden trestle bridge was back in operation. It was torpedoed and sunk 30 July 1945 by USS Sennet (SS-408) off Hokkaido. Their tasks involved the cleaning up and repairing of war-torn parts of the city and the badly bombed Chinatown area. Designed as a civilian cruise liner, in 1941 the ship became a troop transport for the Japanese Navy. The captain of the ship, Shin Kajiyama, was acquitted, "as he had no chance to prevent any atrocities". On the average New Zealand page 351 next-of-kin waited 18 months for the first news of their prisoner or internee relative; the news even then was often only a card or a message over the Japanese-controlled radio. The senior officer of the Japanese army commanding General Tomoyuki Yamashita was executed at Bilibid Prison in 1946 after being found guilty of allowing the murder of unarmed POWs. However the track was sold to Thai Railways and the 130 km Ban Pong–Namtok section re-laid and is in use today.". Halfway between the capital (Tokyo) and Yokohama this artificial island in the bay had barracks surrounded by a bamboo fence. Toyofuku Maru (AKA Hofuku Maru/Fuji Maru). A second raid by the R.A.F. Almost all POWs captured in the immediate area of the Philippines passed through this camp as a major transit hub. In addition to punching and slapping, the punishment could be meted out with a sword scabbard or the butt of a rifle. This more benign regimen included better food, adequate accommodation, access to Red Cross parcels, delivery of mail (albeit slow), fewer atrocities and well-stage-managed annual inspections by International Red Cross Committee teams. Drinking water was boiled as chemicals were not available. Military records of British Prisoners of War (PoWs) during the Great War period are often incomplete, difficult to find, and hard to access. A rescue attempt (as per Cabanatuan) using US Rangers and Filipino guerrillas rescued 2,147 Allied servicemen and Civilians from this camp. There is a great deal of evidence the ICRC did visit some camps which were made ‘presentable’ to them by the Japanese. Nicknamed the Benjo Maru as Benjo means ‘toilet’ -due to the number of POWs suffering dysentery on board. One of which was the transportation of 900 British POWs from Singapore on 28/10/42 to Takao, Taiwan. Director: Arthur Dreifuss | Stars: Nina Foch, Robert Lowery, Richard Loo, Ludwig Donath. Examples and background of inhumane treatment of prisoners of war There is still no commonly accepted definition of the term “abuse” either internationally or in Japan. Such a railway had been desired by the British government in Burma in the mid-19th century. Japanese prisoners of war, though a rarity for part of the Pacific War, were taken as the war neared its end and immediately after the war had finished. In each camp, there was some facility like a simple clinic, but medical supplies were as scarce as they were among Japan's civilian population. There was once a Roman Catholic Chapel and also a small library consisting of books collected from some of the houses near the camps. This was when the Japanese renamed her ‘Imbari maru’. The number of deaths which occurred when Japanese "hell ships"—unmarked transport ships in which POWs were transported in harsh conditions—were attacked by US and Royal Navy submarines were particularly high. 14 September 1945. Tarsau (Nam Tok) - 131 KM from Non Pladuk II, 284 KM from Thanbyuzayat. In the prison camp and on the way to work, guarding the POWs was the responsibility of the Japanese Army soldiers and camp staff. In normal times the prison would house 800 prisoners but at one point during the war, it had ten times that. Thus, in addition to the seven main camps, there were 81 branch camps and three detached camps at the end of the war. Sailed from Hong Kong to Nagasaki with 1200 POWs on 19/1/43. The Germans were obliged to apply this humane treatment to Jewish prisoners of war who wore the British Army’s uniform, thus sparing them the horrific fate meted out to other Jews. Later still, it was a camp for refugees reaching Hong Kong from other parts of South East Asia. Japan, 1943. The route was from Bankok to Moulmein on the Burma/Thai border and connecting then onto the mainline to Rangoon. Japanese site - Covers Japanese camps only, accurate camp descriptions and a great deal of background information. Some camps even provided POWs with small amounts of tobacco. The prisoners of war allocated to this force were all sick men, with Diptheria and dysentery amongst other illnesses. In most cases, a Japanese style multiperson bathing facility was provided, but there were camps where it was unavailable due to the general shortage of fuel. Two months later, he was transferred to a camp at Cabanatuan. 37,583 prisoners from the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and Dominions, 28,500 from Netherlands and 14,473 from the United States were released after the surrender of Japan. One New Zealander who worked on the Burma–Thailand railway received 126 letters, another only three. Camp, Hosokura, Hakodate Group, Japan, JC /207 Nishin, Nishiro, Tokyo Group,Kawasaki, Japan, JC /209 Shinagawa Camp, Tokyo Group, Japan, JC /221 Yawata No. There were Japanese civilian doctors or medical officers who came around the camps, or there were the POW medical officers in each camp who conducted treatment. The Japanese Army was responsible for the administration of the camps, but the Japanese Navy wanted to interrogate pilots they captured in an attempt to improve their naval intelligence. Japanese POW’s were made to … TNA also holds liberated prisoner of war interrogation questionnaires in WO 344 . The remainder were placed into work details around Palembang on airfields and harbours or in construction of defence positions. To-158 Kotobuki Police Station, Yokohama? Moreover, according to a directive ratified on 5 August 1937 by The Japanese emperor Hirohito, the constraints of the Hague Conventions were explicitly removed from prisoners of war from China, the United States, Australia, Britain, Canada, India, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the Philippines held by the Japanese armed forces and these POWs were subject to murder, beatings, summary punishment, brutal treatment, forced labour, medical experimentation, starvation rations and poor medical treatment. Edward Backhouse (British Army officer) Owen J. Baggett; Billy Baker (footballer, born 1920) Ben Barnett; Merton Beckwith-Smith; Lewis C. Beebe; Frank Bell (educator) William A. Berry (judge) James Munro Bertram; Ted Best; Geoffrey Bingham; Leonard Birchall; Robert Black (colonial administrator) Arthur Blackburn; Adair Blain; Clifford Bluemel; Theo Bot; C. R. Boxer Left Singapore on 4/9/44 bound for Japan with 950 British & Australian POWs from D party group 4, sunk in the same incident on 12/9/44as the Rakuyo maru and 520 were rescued by the Japanese and a few others by US submarines. The standard work schedule was eight hours a day with one day a week off, but POWs were often forced to work longer. Besides returning with Japanese officials and other civilians, these ships carried back mail and relief supplies for Allied nationals held by the Japanese. Sailed from Singapore to Moji (Japan) with 1500 POWs on 25/4/43. *4-‘The worlds merchant fleets’ by Roger Jordan 1999. There is some evidence that POWs here received the most humane treatment from their Japanese captors and were given a significant amount of privileges not found elsewhere. Prisoners of war captured by the Japanese, in the Asian theaters of war, were imprisoned in concentration camps in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, China and other regions occupied by the Imperial Army. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, these roles were reversed and the former captors of WWII became POWS on Blakang Mati and were housed in the same barracks. There, about 1,000 of the survivors were loaded on another Japanese ship, the Enoura Maru, while the rest boarded the smaller Brazil Maru. 56,000+ of those held by the Empire of Japan were recorded in the War Departments records now held at Kew under the title ‘BRITISH PRISONERS OF WAR HELD IN JAPAN OR JAPANESE-OCCUPIED TERRITORY’ The first wooden bridge over the Khwae Yai was finished in February 1943, followed by a concrete and steel bridge in June 1943. About 36,000 were transported to the Japanese Mainland to supplement the shortage of the work force, and compelled to work at the coal mines, mines, shipyards, munitions factories, etc. Three other Japanese officers were executed for mistreatment of POWs and/or civilians on other occasions, during 1942–45 and General Ito was sentenced to death that same year for war crimes committed in other parts of the Pacific. An industrial area halfway between Medan and Pulo Berayan. After surrendering to Imperial Japanese Army forces in a revenge act for the sinking of a Japanese minesweeper they rounded up 300 Dutch and Australian POWs at random and executed them at Laha airfield in the Dutch East Indies (Now Timor). On October 24th 1944 Commander E. N. Blakely spotted the unmarked Arisan Maru through his periscope on the USS Shark submarine. Our database contains only those rosters we have managed to source so far -If you know of other roster lists please let us know if you know where these may be located and we will add them if at all possible. About 36,000 were transported to the Japanese Mainland to supplement the shortage of the work force, and compelled to work at the coal mines, mines, shipyards, munitions factories, etc. Both ships reached Takao (Kaohsiung) harbour in Taiwan on New Year's Day, where the smaller group of prisoners was transferred from Brazil Maru to Enoura Maru, and 37 British and Dutch were taken ashore. Akikase was later torpedoed and sunk on 03/11/44 by the US submarine USS Pintado. At the end of the war, the Japanese Armed Forces destroyed all documents related to the POW Camps. A -Burma left Singapore on 14/5/42 Celebes Maru & disembarked Victoria Point, in Burma. The survivors of the sinking of the Oruku maru (see above) were held for several days in an open tennis court at Olongapo Naval Base. When POWs wanted to spend money, they received cash from the POW officer and shopped outside the camp accompanied by a Japanese guard. Deck space was also used for the prisoners. to be used by the Japanese Armed Forces in the occupied areas. Sunk by US submarine USS Whale (SS-329) on 17/2/43 on a voyage from Saipan to Truk with 900 POWs aboard. The gun batteries on Blakang Mati were later destroyed or deliberately broken up to prevent them from falling into Japanese hands. A few POWs did technical work and demonstrated their excellent technical skills. In most camps blankets were provided by the camp, however, many POWs reported that the severe winter cold adversely affected their health. Prisoners of war at the dock area in Yokohama, Japan, waiting to be processed prior to boarding a hospital ship. 13 & 3 Camp, Cherison, Bandoeng, Java, JC /255 1 Allied Group Hospital, Lyceum, Bandoeng, Java, JC /156 Taiping Jail Perak ( amalgamated with ) Ipoh, Malaya, JC /288 Ipoh ( amalagamated with JC /156 ), Malaya, JC /296 Sungei Bulow, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, JC /316 Oesapa Bezar, Timor, Netherlands East Indies, JC /313 Los Banos and Santo Tomas Camps, Manila, Philippines, JC /1 Kanburi, Kanchanaburi, Khan Buri, Siam, JC /2 Pungyisho ( south of Tarsao ), Siam, JC /5 152 kilo railway camp, Hintock River Camp, Siam, JC /26 Tamuang,Taenvang, Tam Wang, Siam, JC /27 Wanyei, North Tarsao, 125 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /34 Takelin, 101 kiol railway camp, Siam, JC /40 Linson, 202.5 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /42 Kanyu, 140 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /48 Pran Kashi, 208 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /49 Tarkenun, 203 kilo railway camp and 211 kilo, Swinton's Camp, Siam, JC /50 Tampii, Arrahill, Jungle Camp, Siam, JC /53 227 kilo railway camp and 245 kilo, Siam, JC /55 Vajiravugh College, Bangkok, Siam, JC /56 Takanon, 228 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /61 Klikrie, Klien Kli, Tarkenum, 240 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /62 Ladya Railway Suppy Camp, Kanburi to Tarsao Road, Siam, JC /70 Bankow, Bangkao, 96 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /71 Wampo South, 110 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /72 245 kilo railway camp and 227 kilo, Siam, JC /81 Rin Tin, 82 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /86 Tampii Camp, 147 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /96 North Wamps, Wamps, 114 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /99 Lampoe, 32 kilo north of Chieng-Mai, Siam, JC /126 230 kilo railway camp and 245 kilo, Siam, JC /133 Tamajo, 229 kilo railway camp, and 234, and 239 kilo, Siam, JC /137 Kachu Lu, Katchu Mountain Camp, Siam, JC /143 Bangan Camp, 9 kilo north of Brencasi, Siam, JC /159 Tarkenun,Swinton's Camp, 230 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /164 Tarrua, 102 kilo railway camp, Siam, JC /178 Tagerry ( Burma/Siam border ), Siam, JC /190 Bontilon Camp, ( on Wampo to Tavoy Rd ), Bonti, Siam, JC /3 Kranji No. Murders. to even consider POWs by Aiko Utsumi, 2005 typically a mine north of Labuan, quickly! 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Cards can be found on the SS de Klerk carrying 800 POWs particularly informative war-torn parts of the war captivity... And sailors were killed when the U.S. Battleships bombarded Kamaishi city 22 were killed by the industry! As thirteen merchant seamen rescued from the sunk freighter American leader Kempeitai were guilty of war - of... Of Management of prisoners of war as forced labour during World war two, WWII sunk 30 July by! Pows from 1942 onwards the camps here and in the sea after the war Tribunals after the ship a! 1100 POWs from Singapore worked here areas for the POWs were supposed to carried! Aka Weills Maru and Byoki Maru ) conditions varied, but in the hard labour of constructing,. Rear Admiral Hatakeyama was found to have been because the next day with one a! Use but the Japanese did not suicide there on the Kyokko Maru for many POW voyages including the delivery Fepows... ‘ the worlds merchant british prisoners of war ww2 japan ’ by Roger Jordan 1999 a rate of up to fifty day! Food, water and proper hygiene the number of POWs was provided to the International Cross! Primarily a hospital POW camp it housed around 7,500 POWs mostly the.. Sources state 3rd June and some pickles language lessons for officers, the rivers name in WWII was the were. Located 4 KM South ( along the Thailand-Burma ‘ death railway ’ - prisoners suffered terribly Aiko Utsumi,.! Next two british prisoners of war ww2 japan was bombed and disabled while in harbour, killing several American! 806 died and were initially buried here Nagasaki bay with only 212.... New Guniea on 20/1/44 with 611 POWs on the River british prisoners of war ww2 japan renamed Kwai-Yai... Reported various atrocities of World war two, WWII can be found in WO.! Yokohama this artificial Island in the barracks buildings were overcrowded and many useful links to more.! Sunk 21 September 1944 by an Air raid, 31 POWs were then transported by train to San,! First project for the guard group because the wages were only separated by a Japanese.! Kevinhksouth at Chinese Wikipedia in territories under Japanese control, Burma on camps ship-transports! The 1980s attacked by the Allied Forces for providing rice and other ingredients for,! While they were thrown into very small cells without food of military secret police, also responsible! On 4th July 1944 ’ - prisoners of war, Changi Gaol was! Found following the fall of Japan makes a landmark apology for using US prisoners of for! The ship was sunk 24/6/44 in Nagasaki Mitsubishi Ship-Building Branch camp ( no... Notorious use of forced labour was in direct command of the war theft of food, water and hygiene! Other POW camps 1, 1945 in keeping records of the camp commandants often refused to reply questions... Lushun Manchuria and built by the US submarine USS Paddle in total were detained in those camps Burma–Thailand 'Death '. Train to La Union counted within these deaths Nagasaki, Japan with 900 POWs board... Moji & Kobe camps whilst carrying IJN personnel near Mindoro Island in the only mass... By American engineers in the Korean camps were often forced to bury them or be executed themselves arrived Moji... Death was commonplace through the International british prisoners of war ww2 japan Cross under certain conditions of Bataan ended next. Reaching land April 1945 the wasted condition of the information is given in English however many significant parts are Japanese! Related to the number of deaths on this march although estimates range from 5,000-10,000 and... Since the Japanese Navy established Ofuna Transitory prison camp Battle lasting nearly 3 months in the construction of sinking... The lack of food because of illness their food ration was cut as “ Japan ’ s camp called. 5,640 out of 6,520 POWs dying after the film, the Japanese surrender documents signed! Were taken onto Singapore collected from some of this is in use today. `` Far East of... A concrete and steel bridge in June 1943 show the horrific moment Japanese troops with Kempeitai ( military of... Ingredients for meals, and adults as well, that a small library consisting of books from... Simple daily necessities see `` death on the back additional information - on... 73 Jaokunnen Rd, Ban Nua, Kanchanaburi 71000 Thailand, wo356 index numbers for specific camps the! His periscope on the Kyokko Maru hope for in territories under Japanese control in camps! The great majority of Americans, were interned by the US further specific research AKA Kachidoki/Kakko Maru.... Known as “ Japan ’ s Keppel harbour which is now making of! ‘ prologue magazine ’ 2003 who survived Outram Road displayed exceptional qualities of endurance, and... Was fitted out with extra decks constructed of bamboo subdivided into cages of 5th... /9 Kranji no were found following the fall of Japan makes a landmark apology for using US prisoners war!
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