Alpine Fault. All these cities have experienced severe earthquakes since European settlement. “I thought we’d dodged a bullet with the Darfield earthquake,” says Bill. Relative to the fault, the land north of the fault shifted eastward while the land to the south of the fault shifted westward. "Christchurch has never been identified as a major earthquake zone, because no one knew this fault ran beneath," says a seismologist at the British Geological Survey. A big quake on the Alpine Fault could block South Island highways in more than 120 places and leave 10,000 people cut off, new research has estimated. The [1] The Southern Alps have been uplifted on the fault over the last 12 million years in a series of earthquakes. Brendon Bradley, professor in earthquake engineering at the University of Canterbury, has created a computer simulation of the likely impact of a magnitude 8 earthquake on the Alpine Fault. / Hidden fault. 2 ALPINE FAULT EARTHQUAKE 2.1 Alpine Fault The Alpine Fault is the largest active fault in New Zealand and extends over 650km on land from Milford Sound to Blenheim. electricity returned to 75% of the city. Fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the ground surface. 30,000. AcknowledgementsFor discussions and sharing of early results: Pierre Briole, ENS, France; Marcello de Michele, BRGM, France; Eric Fielding, JPL, USA; SARmap group, Switzerland; INGV, Italy; GSI, Japan; Shaun Levick, Caroline Holden, Bill Fry, Stephen Bannister, Martin Reyners, all at GNS. Running through the heart of New Zealand’s glacier country is the infamous Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. An earthquake early-warning system is conceivable for the South Island alpine fault and could give people 30 seconds to get out of buildings. The worst-affected areas if the Alpine Fault were to rupture have been revealed. The Alpine Fault, running up the South Island, has an earthquake nearly every 300 years. [1], The Christchurch fault is believed to have been responsible for a series of earthquakes that rocked the city on Boxing Day of 2010. The faults are identifiable by the way they deform the ground. 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake 2011 Christchurch earthquake Alpine Fault ChristChurch Cathedral Volcanology of New Zealand. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. 6 months on-repairs. The Alpine Fault marks the boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Large earthquakes are less common along the central Alpine Fault, where the plates are not subducting and the forces are accommodated in different ways. The fault rupture (Fig. For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. It may have been responsible for a moderate earthquake that shook the city in 1869. Queenstown residents were woken up early on Sunday morning by a relatively shallow magnitude 5.5 tremor, centred just northeast of Milford Sound on the Alpine Fault. This was one of the main faults that caused the Canterbury earthquake of 2010. Benjamin Mountfort. AF8 is focused on planning for this event in the South Island, but some North Island CDEM groups are also taking the Alpine Fault into account in their planning. “Just because we didn’t see it in that earthquake in the past, doesn’t mean we won’t see it in the future.” He applies the same caution to the next likely rupture of New Zealand’s largest fault, the Alpine Fault. distributed on faults within the Southern Alps and the remaining 5% (approximately) on faults within a broader region beneath the Canterbury Plains (Wallace et al., 2007). Photo: Getty Images. The duration of shaking is expected to last over 3 minutes for an Alpine Fault earthquake and at least 20 seconds for a Hope fault earthquake. Different forecasts have put the probability of a future Alpine Fault quake measuring over 8.0 as high as 65 per cent within the next 50 years - and almost 85 per cent over 100 years. Domestic help from . The way in which the Christchurch earthquake happened was due to the vibration of the ‘Alpine fault’ line which runs for around 600 km through Christchurch (Science, Alpine Fault, 2017). A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. Over the next few seconds the rupture spread upwards and towards the northwest, with the amount of slip increasing with time. Many Cantabrians and others in the central South Island, had assumed that because the Alpine Fault was more than 100km away shaking would not be strong, even in a large earthquake, he said. Such a duration is comparable to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 M27.1 Darfield earthquake. This raised part of the Port Hills and part of southern Christchurch. In fact, the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers through the South Island, suffered major eruptions in 1717, 1620, 1450, and 1100. and 1.2 seconds. Chemical toilets provided for. This type of fault motion is called reverse faulting. The way in which the Christchurch earthquake happened was due to the vibration of the ‘Alpine fault’ line which runs for around 600 km through Christchurch (Science, Alpine Fault, 2017). Compulsory READ: ALPINE FAULT RUPTURE: FACTS Page 3 / 5. fepixie, Jan 29, 11:38pm. Even from a distance they are quite disconcerting. Sure the Alpine will noot be acake walk for many. The last earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in 1717. documented earthquake events causing surface rupture along other fault lines akin or adjacent to the Alpine Fault which give us some measure of what we might be in for when the predicted large event occurs. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. A powerful 7.1 magnitude earthquake, occurred on the Greendale Fault at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010 local time (16:35 3 September UTC). Page, Paul H. Denys, Chris F. Pearson, A geodetic study of the Alpine Fault through South Westland: using campaign GPS data to model slip rates on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 10.1080/00288306.2018.1494006, 61, 3, (359-366), (2018). The duration of shaking is expected to last over 3 minutes for an Alpine fault earthquake and at least 20 seconds for a Hope fault earthquake. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. Thherewill be no Tsunami in nz if the Alpine goes as it is a *Landbased* fault line. Magnitude 8 or larger, geologists said in a special edition of the New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics last year. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. It was part of a swarm of tremors around Milford … The rupture will produce one of the biggest earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand, and it will have a major impact on the lives of many people. The earthquake struck approximately 50 km to the west-northwest of Christchurch, the largest population center in the region, and about 80-90 km to the south and east of the current expression of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary through the island (the Alpine and Hope faults). A rupture of the fault was therefore considered inevitable, with severe damage predicted to the built environment - especially to infrastructure. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. but wholesale death and destruction isunlikely, any links( no matter who they are from) is onlyconjection, not truth, as you said in other thread how many geologists/scientists were around to prove what they say is true. The nearest fault, the Alpine Fault, lies many hundreds of miles to the west, in — as the name suggests — the Southern Alps. Scientists didn't know of. The rock on the south side of the fault has moved up and westward by as much as 2.5 metres relative to the rock on the north side of the fault. In terms of the way the previous material has been set out in this resource, and because there is so much available about the Alpine Fault, it has been decided to treat material about … $5 million. The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. The coloured image shows an “interference pattern” derived from X-band radar images taken on 19 and 23 February 2011 by the Italian Cosmo-SkyMed satellite. The Darfield earthquake had a magnitude of M7.1. Canterbury earthquake. Share. The Hope Fault is an active dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand.It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Away from the main plate boundary faults there are many smaller faults throughout Canterbury. We expect that details of the fault location and slip distribution will be updated in the future, as we incorporate more data and use more sophisticated data analysis techniques. When the Alpine Fault next ruptures it is likely to produce an earthquake with a magnitude of around 8. This video shows another validation case to test our Bullet Constraints Builder add-on for Blender with as part of our research. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. The devastating earthquake that tore through Christchurch on Tuesday is the product of a new fault line in the Earth’s crust that seismologists were previously unaware of. / Natural Hazards and Risks The direction of movement—up and towards the northwest—focussed the energy of the earthquake towards Christchurch and helps explain the severe damage in the city. He said it gave the most detailed information yet about the sort of impact a major Alpine Fault earthquake would have on different parts of the South Island. South of Ross, effectively all The 2011 Christchurch earthquake, for example, was the result of a 16km fault rupture. 50-100 years to completely recover. 1) was about 14 kilometres long, and extends east-northeast from Cashmere to the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. Earthquakes happen when a fault suddenly breaks. Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. Figure 2: Diagram showing the amount and direction of slip of the rock between the two sides of the fault. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. Christchurch Earthquake. This article describes our understanding of the Christchurch earthquake fault as at the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the earthquake. An Alpine Fault rupture could produce one of the most destructive earthquakes since European settlement of New Zealand because of its geologic characteristics. 50%g respectively during an Alpine fault earthquake, while ground motions in Christchurch are expected to be moderate, with peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 8%g expected from an Alpine event and 6%g from a Hope fault event. Running through the heart of New Zealand's glacier country is the infamous Alpine Fault. Kandahar, being located in south-eastern Afghanistan, is farther removed from tectonic movements in the northeast and is located well away from the Chaman fault, further decreasing its … For GPS data: LINZ, especially Josh Thomas and Dave Collett; GeoNet; Geosystems/Trimble New Zealand; Global Survey; Andersen & Associates, especially Brent George; Christchurch City Council; Otago University. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton. Christchurch earthquake. However, the plates are locked and when they overcome these barriers, they produce large but … construction standards. A mega magnitude eight earthquake on the South Island's Alpine Fault will likely happen in the lifetime of many New Zealanders alive today, scientists warn. Just as the Kaikōura earthquake in 2016 had a significant impact on Wellington, we expect that when the Alpine Fault ruptures in a large magnitude earthquake it will be widely felt across the lower North Island. tectonic plates, approximately 75%, is taken up on the Alpine Fault, approximately 20% . Several faults are scattered across New Zealand’s South Island, and all are associated with the motion of the two tectonic plates. Even from a distance they are quite disconcerting. 1) before and after the earthquake was analysed, using measurements from both existing continuous GPS stations and temporary stations installed after the earthquake. Chris J. The main part of the fault thus lies beneath the northern edge of the Port Hills. At 3 AM on May 29, 2013, the South Island’s technological uncon­scious roars […] Figure 1: This Google map image shows the fault plane (rectangular area) across the southern part of Christchurch and northern Port Hills. Hirat lies close to the Hari Rud fault, but because of this fault’s low slip rate, large earthquakes are infrequent. The suburbs of Heathcote and Redcliffs lie above the fault, resulting in heavy damage and extensive rockfalls. This is called a ‘Transform boundary’. The block of land south of the fault slid up the fault surface by as much as 2.5 metres on the section of fault near the Avon-Heathcote estuary. Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. The Mw 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake of 22 February 2011 7 . Our scientific understanding concerning the next large earthquake on the Alpine Fault, New Zealand. It happened along an east-west fault that had not been identified before. / Canterbury quake The last earthquake on the Alpine Fault was in 1717. The rarest is from a major rupture of the Alpine Fault – around a magnitude 8 event. There are three major known earthquake threat sources to Christchurch – and although all differ in their magnitude and distance from the city, all are expected to result in around the same amount of ground shaking. Figure 3: Image indicating ground displacement made by combining satellite radar images taken before and after the earthquake. The most probable ground shaking intensities tor a magnitude B earthquake On the Alpine Fault, which is the largest earthquake likely to occur on faults close to Canterbury The Alpine Fault can produce magnitude 8 earthquakes and does so about every 300 to 350 years. The Alpine Fault ruptures—on average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 earthquake. These four short videos explain why we are taking the Alpine Fault so seriously and help you understand how you can be prepared for the disruption to normal life that a severe earthquake will cause. The 600 kilometer-long (370 mile) faultline on the boundary of the Eurasian and Pacific tectonic plates beneath the country’s South Island produces infrequent but significant earthquakes. It will be centred roughly 60km west of Queenstown, in the South Westland area. The Port Hills have gone up by varying amounts, from about 5 centimetres under Lyttelton Harbour to a maximum of about 25 centimetres at the base of the hills near the Heathcote valley. CTV building didn't meet. The fault rupture started with a small amount of slip between the two sides of the fault at about 6 km depth. The fault is not a vertical cut through the earth, but rather it dips towards the south at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. It is possible that a large Alpine Fault earthquake could also rupture the western part of some faults of the Marlborough Fault … Australia gave. Such a duration is comparable to the duration observed in Christchurch from the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield earthquake. Canterbury. Both Dunedin and Christchurch are likely to experience shaking and liquefaction in low-lying areas,” Dr. Orchiston said. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. Presentation given in Christchurch in March 2015. It runs virtually the whole length of the West Coast Region, with the high mountains to its east and the lower hill lands and alluvial flats to its west. the Farmy Army-800 farmers with machines. The Greendale Fault is an active seismic fault in the middle of New Zealand's South Island. Geologists and authorities are racing to quantify what might happen, and how they might respond in the event of the next one, likely to occur some time in the next 50 years. The red, green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault slip model. In the line of fire is the small town of Franz Josef, just 5 kilometers (3 miles) from the often-visited Franz Josef glacier in … An Alpine Fault rupture … The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island. I felt the next Christchurch quake (22 February) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well. The 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and the 2011 liquefaction of buildings in Christchurch … Just after midday on the 22 nd of February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck Christchurch, resulting in 185 deaths.. Seismologist Bill Fry, who is also part of the Resilience to Nature’s Challenges National Science Challenge, was on earthquake duty at GeoNet that day. Earthquake hits South Island's Alpine Fault; How large? In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. There is still additional work to do to locate these aftershocks precisely, at which time they may provide additional detail on the fault rupture. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. How often does the Alpine Fault rupture? The 3.24am quake was 5km deep and reported by more than 600 people around Queenstown and Wanaka. Within 3 days... 80% of roads and 50% of footpaths were repaired. [2], "Second Christchurch fault much better behaved", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Christchurch_Fault&oldid=944155164, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 March 2020, at 02:08. The top of the fault lies at a depth of about a kilometre beneath the surface, and the rupture extends down along the fault plane for about seven kilometres. Written by Geoff Chapple ISSUE 125 The contour lines indicate the amount (in mm) the land has risen (blue contours) or subsided (red contours) due to the slip on the fault. In 1873 a new resident architect, New Zealander Benjamin Mountfort, took over and construction began again. The Alpine Fault creates the earthquake by the opposite sides rubbing against each other after tension has built up between the two. It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton.It runs parallel to the more destructive Port Hills Fault that lies 5 km to the south of the Christchurch Fault. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. The hidden fault that caused the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The 2020 New Zealand Earthquake (pronounced "TWENTY-TWENTY", also known as the Alpine Fault Quake and the 2020 South Island Quake) is a magnitude 8.7 earthquake that will occur on the Alpine Fault in New Zealand's South Island at 11:31 (local) on Thursday, June 18th, 2020. Home The Christchurch Fault is an active seismic fault running under the city of Christchurch in the middle of New Zealand's South Island.. Radar images taken from satellites before and after the earthquake were analysed. As a direct result of the fault slip, the Bexley, Aranui, Wainoni, Avondale and New Brighton areas have gone down, mostly by less than 15 centimetres. "New Zealand has excellent earthquake standards in its building codes, but those standards were much more stringent on the Alpine fault to the west of Christchurch … The general region of fault slip is outlined by the aftershocks of the 22 February earthquake. Because the fault doesn’t break the surface, the land overlying the top of the fault has been slightly folded, with the south side warped upward and the north side down (see Fig. 2). It runs from an area close to Riccarton, under the Central City, through the eastern suburbs off the coast of New Brighton. The Alpine Fault runs for about 600km up the spine of the South Island, and is one of the world’s major geological features. North Canterbury residents will have a chance to hear from leading natural hazard scientist, Professor Tom Wilson of University Of Canterbury about the impacts and consequences of a future magnitude 8 earthquake along the Alpine Fault, and how people can become better prepared for it. It comes after scientists claimed the Alpine Fault is overdue for an earthquake that could reshape the South Island. Both earthquakes were less than 50 km from the Christchurch central business area and had a magnitude that is much smaller than that expected from the Alpine fault (Mw=8.2) and that is similar to a potential Hope fault event (Mw7+). Even from a … The next major rupture of the South Island's Alpine Fault will be one of the largest - if not the biggest - earthquake Kiwis have ever experienced. When I woke up to feel the first Christchurch earthquake (4 September 2010) my first thought after WTF was whether it was ‘the big one’ expected some time on the Alpine Fault. 2). The Alpine Fault runs northeast from the northern side of the entrance to Milford Sound, through the mountains behind Martins Bay, along the coast beneath the Southern Alps to … 3). It will be centred roughly 60km west of Queenstown, in the South Westland area. 0 Comments. The largest city within the highest-risk zone is the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier. Rebuild. Duration: 10min … Geologists and researchers agree an alpine fault earthquake poses the main seismic hazard in the South Island. I felt the next Christchurch quake (22 February) while at work, and a few aftershocks as well. The land has gone up as much as 40 centimetres around the western side of the Avon-Heathcote estuary. However the modelled PGA from an Alpine Fault event … A big quake on the Alpine Fault could block South Island highways in more than 120 places and leave 10,000 people cut off, new research has estimated. In between earthquakes, the Alpine Fault is locked. Synthetic ground motions from the broadband simulations are generally consistent with PGAs estimated from GMPEs. The red star shows the location where the fault rupture started. Each colour cycle represents 1.5 centimetres of ground displacement, so the total displacement between the western edge of the image and central Christchurch is about 25 centimetres. The earthquakes on the Alpine Fault occurred at different times to the earthquakes on the southern Hikurangi Trench, showing that they were not one continuous earthquake rupture. The Alpine Fault has a high probability (estimated at 30%) of rupturing in the next 50 years. Now we do. The Alpine Fault ruptures—on average—every 330 years with a magnitude 8 earthquake. The deeper parts of the fault, and the westernmost 5 to 6 kilometres of the fault slipped predominantly horizontally by a few tens of centimetres. Regional planning workshops are being held in each South Island region and once they are completed in April, a coordinated South Island Alpine Fault Earthquake (SAFER) Plan will be developed. Position data from GPS stations (Fig. Response spectra are very useful tools for analysing the seismic performance of structures. 100% (1/1) B.W Mountfort. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11 …and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. / Recent Events Waimakariri District Council media release: 10th November 2020. The white line is the contour where there was no change in height. In fact, the Alpine Fault, which runs for about 600 kilometers through the South Island, suffered major eruptions in 1717, 1620, 1450, and 1100. The Canterbury Plains could suffer more damage in an Alpine Fault quake than some areas closer to the fault, say researchers - and it is not alone. Mark Horstman heads to earthquake-ravaged Christchurch and meets the seismologists who are investigating the fault line that caused the damage. Ground shaking intensities in Christchurch during an Alpine Fault earthquake will be high enough to cause liquefaction. The September 4 earthquake, however, did not occur on the Alpine Fault. The Alpine Fault can produce magnitude 8 earthquakes and does so about every 300 to 350 years. Between earthquakes, the land has gone up as much as 40 centimetres around western. Long, and extends east-northeast from Cashmere to the fault plane was mixture of vertical and! The way they deform the ground shaking recorded during the strong shaking was the of! Generally consistent with PGAs estimated from GMPEs geologists and researchers agree an Alpine fault is an active fault... The worst-affected areas if the Alpine fault ; How large rupture have uplifted. 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